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V. Navalpakkam, L. Itti, Modeling the influence of task on attention, Vision Research, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 205-231, Jan 2005. [2003 impact factor: 1.958] (Cited by 494)
Abstract: We propose a computational model for the task-specific guidance of visual attention in real-world scenes. Our model emphasizes four aspects that are important in biological vision: determining task-relevance of an entity, biasing attention for the low-level visual features of desired targets, recognizing these targets using the same low-level features, and incrementally building a visual map of task-relevance at every scene location. Given a task definition in the form of keywords, the model first determines and stores the task-relevant entities in working memory, using prior knowledge stored in long-term memory. It attempts to detect the most relevant entity by biasing its visual attention system with the entity's learned low-level features. It attends to the most salient location in the scene, and attempts to recognize the attended object through hierarchical matching against object representations stored in long-term memory. It updates its working memory with the task-relevance of the recognized entity and updates a topographic task-relevance map with the location and relevance of the recognized entity. The model is tested on three types of tasks: single-target detection in 343 natural and synthetic images, where biasing for the target accelerates target detection over two-fold on average; sequential multiple-target detection in 28 natural images, where biasing, recognition, working memory and long term memory contribute to rapidly finding all targets; and learning a map of likely locations of cars from a video clip filmed while driving on a highway. The model's performance on search for single features and feature conjunctions is consistent with existing pyschophysical data. These results of our biologically-motivated architecture suggest that the model may provide a reasonable approximation to many brain processes involved in complex task-driven visual behaviors.
Keywords: Attention ; top-down ; bottom-up ; object detection ; recognition ; task-relevance ; scene analysis
Themes: Model of Bottom-Up Saliency-Based Visual Attention, Model of Top-Down Attentional Modulation, Computational Modeling, Scene Understanding
Copyright © 2000-2007 by the University of Southern California, iLab and Prof. Laurent Itti.
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