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R. J. Peters, L. Itti, Beyond bottom-up: Incorporating task-dependent influences into a computational model of spatial attention, In: Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), Jun 2007. [2007 acceptance rate: 28%] (Cited by 223)
Abstract: A critical function in both machine vision and biological vision systems is attentional selection of scene regions worthy of further analysis by higher-level processes such as object recognition. Here we present the first model of spatial attention that (1) can be applied to arbitrary static and dynamic image sequences with interactive tasks and (2) combines a general computational implementation of both bottom-up (BU) saliency and dynamic top-down (TD) task relevance; the claimed novelty lies in the combination of these elements and in the fully computational nature of the model. The BU component computes a saliency map from 12 low-level multi-scale visual features. The TD component computes a low-level signature of the entire image, and learns to associate different classes of signatures with the different gaze patterns recorded from human subjects performing a task of interest. We measured the ability of this model to predict the eye movements of people playing contemporary video games. We found that the TD model alone predicts where humans look about twice as well as does the BU model alone; in addition, a combined BU*TD model performs significantly better than either individual component. Qualitatively, the combined model predicts some easy-to-describe but hard-to-compute aspects of attentional selection, such as shifting attention leftward when approaching a left turn along a racing track. Thus, our study demonstrates the advantages of integrating BU factors derived from a saliency map and TD factors learned from image and task contexts in predicting where humans look while performing complex visually-guided behavior.
Themes: Model of Bottom-Up Saliency-Based Visual Attention, Computer Vision, Model of Top-Down Attentional Modulation, Human Eye-Tracking Research, Computational Modeling
Copyright © 2000-2007 by the University of Southern California, iLab and Prof. Laurent Itti.
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